The Authorship of the Book of Hebrews

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( Jeffrey S. Bowman, all rights reserved, use by permission only)



 

A Theological Investigation into the Authorship of Hebrews

Studies on the authorship of the book of Hebrews are at the same time extensive and inconclusive.  Since the time of Origen (185 - 256 AD.) scholars have sought to identify the author of Hebrews.  Volumes have been written and theories have been postulated.  However, most will agree, that in all their efforts, conclusions have been uncertain and many resolve, like Origen, that "God only knows" who is the author.  Yet one thing is certain, Hebrews has had a place in the New Testament ever since the formation of the canon of scriptures.  Whoever wrote Hebrews must have been well known to those early Christians.  It is a book of no small size, has a doctrinal content which presupposes a solid grasp of Old Testament concepts, and provides clarification and a key to understanding Hebrew believers in the first century.

This paper has a two-fold purpose: first to provide additional reasons why the Apostle to the Uncircumcision, Paul, could not have written Hebrews; and secondly, to offer "yet another" hypothesis as to authorship.  The first purpose is born out of a strong conviction that some reasons have been overlooked (or at least not given sufficient consideration) by students of the issue.  These reasons are meant to enhance an already strong (at least in this writer's mind) case against Paul's, or a student of Paul's, authorship.  The second offers a conclusion that is hopefully fresh, innovative, and that opens the study door for more research.

FURTHER EVIDENCE AGAINST A PAULINE AUTHORSHIP OF HEBREWS

Guthrie in his volume "New Testament Introduction" states: "Most modern writers find more difficulty in imagining how this Epistle was ever attributed to Paul than in disposing of the theory." [1]   Guthrie continues and lists five arguments against a Pauline authorship.  Summarized they are as follows: 1. The anonymity of the book is not in keeping with Paul's pattern.  2. Differences in style.  3. The absence or lack of Pauline spiritual experience.  4. Theological differences both theoretical and practical.  5.  A different historical position of the writer than Paul. [2]   One can also find similar arguments against Paul or a student of Paul's authorship of Hebrew in the research of many able New Testament scholars.  Books by Milligan, Zahn, and Allen & Grensted are of note. [3]

There is no doubt that those who hold to a Pauline authorship have somewhat answered (in their mind fully answered) these objections.  However the discussion is far from being over and the case closed.

Paul the Apostle to the Uncircumcision

Paul's apostleship is different than that of the twelve apostles.  He was chosen by the risen Christ to be the apostle to the Gentiles.  He is never numbered with the twelve.  Paul states:

Ephesians 3:1  For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles,  2  If ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of God which is given me to you-ward:  3  How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words,  4  Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ)  5  Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;  6  That the Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel:  7  Whereof I was made a minister, according to the gift of the grace of God given unto me by the effectual working of his power.

I Timothy 2:7  Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not;) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.

II Timothy 1:11  Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

And the powerful passage in Galatians 2:

  7  But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;  8  (For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:)  9  And when James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars, perceived the grace that was given unto me, they gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we should go unto the heathen, and they unto the circumcision.

Paul is quite emphatic that he was the chosen apostle to the uncircumcision, the Gentiles.  As we comb through his letters, we see a distinct pattern in both style and vocabulary that he uses in describing his calling and message to the Gentiles.  This pattern is completely absent in the book of Hebrews.  Such patterns are best seen in Paul's choice of illustrations and metaphors in describing his theology.  These patterns provide us with fingerprints to look for in testing for a Pauline authorship of Hebrews.  When we look for them, they are not to be found.   Consider the following Pauline vocabulary and concepts and observe the Epistle of Hebrew's presentation of related themes:

Paul's Patterns

Hebrew's Presentation

 

Christ being the Head of the Body of believers (I Cor. 12:12-27; Eph. 1:22,23; 4:14,15; 5:23; Col. 1:18; 2:10,19).

 

Christ is the High Priest over the People of Israel (Heb. 2:17; 3:1; 4:14,15; 5:5,20; 9:11,12,19-23; 13:11,12).

 

The Believer's unconditional eternal union with Christ (Rom. 8:26-36; I Cor. 5:5; Eph. 1:3-5,13,14; 2:5-9; 4:30).

 

The Believer's potential to "fall away" from eternal union with Christ (Heb. 6:4-6,9-12; 10:26-39).

 

Preoccupation with showing the equal status between Jew and Gentile as the people of God (Rom. 1:16; 3:9-11, 22,23; 4:9-12; ch. 9-11; I Cor. 1:24; Gal. 3:28; Eph. 2:11-22; 3:6; Col 3:11).

Preoccupation with showing Israel as THE PEOPLE of God (2:17; 4:9; 5:3; 7:5,11,27; 8:8,10; 9:7,19; 11:25; 13:17).

 

Use of the word WORLD over 40 times with special reference to the global aspect of Christ's redemption (II Cor 5:19; Col. 1:4-6; I Tim. 3:16).  Paul uses kosmos in a broad manner.  It is a common Pauline term.

Not one usage of the word WORLD is in reference to Christ's act of redemption.  Rather Israel is seen as the only beneficiary (2:17; 7:27; 13:12).  Kosmos used only 5 times in a narrow context.

 

Israel's FALL into a state of "Lo Ammi" (Rom. 11; Eph 2).

Israel's RISE into the promised Covenant (8:8-13; 10:16,29; 12:24; 13:20)

 

One could argue that Paul's audience would dictate his language and style.  This is no doubt true.  However, in his consistent choice of these terms and metaphors he teaches a distinct body of theology. [4]   Such "Pauline" theology is absent in the letter to the Hebrews.  In a candid manner, Hebrews presents a theology that is very much converse of Paul.  Some scholars have even suggested that the author of Hebrews is not acquainted with Paul's teaching. [5]   I disagree, but the point of significant theological difference between Paul and Hebrews is noted.  Delitzsch, who favors the Pauline authorship admits:

            It always seems strange that we do not anywhere meet with those particular ideas which form, so to speak, the arteries of Paul's doctrinal system. [6]

George Milligan provides a fitting summary to this aspect of our study:

            Not only can Paul not be the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, but it is extremely unlikely that the writer is to be sought in the immediate circle of his followers or friends: otherwise he would have reproduced more closely his master's teaching. [7]

PETER -- THE FORGOTTEN APOSTLE TO THE CIRCUMCISION

There have been many suggestions offered as to who could have written Hebrews.  It would be tedious to attempt a review all the reasons why Barnabas, Luke, Clement, Apollos, Philip, Priscilla & Aquilla, Silas, and others have be promulgated as the author of Hebrews. [8]   However there is another potential author that has been overlooked.  This is none other than Peter, the Apostle to the Circumcision.  It is all too obvious that many have overlooked Peter as a potential author of Hebrews.  But why such an oversight is hard to tell because virtually no one addresses such a prospect.  Furthermore it is equally apparent that Peter's Apostleship to the Circumcision is also forgotten.  Yet it is clear from Galatians 2:7-9 that Peter's Apostleship to the Circumcision was in contrast to that of Paul's to the Uncircumcision.  Let it be remembered that both were given these distinct spheres of operation by Christ.

Peter is in many ways Paul's counterpart.  Peter is the main figure for the first half of the book of Acts (as Paul is the later half).  His role in the circle of the Twelve is that of leader.  He, along with James (the Lord's brother) and John, were the apostles singled out by Paul in Galatians as being the "pillars" in the Jerusalem church.  Thus, Peter's role in the early church is prominent.  We possess his sermons (as recorded in Acts), and two letters that are ascribed to him that we can use for data to compare with Hebrews.  When we set out to observe "fingerprint patterns" consisting of style and vocabulary and then look at Hebrews we see a great connection.  Notice the following parallels:

PETER

HEBREWS

 

I Peter 1:2  Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

12:24  And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.

10:2  Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water.

 

I Peter 2:25  For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls. 

5:4  And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.

13:20  Now the God of peace, that brought again from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep, through the blood of the everlasting covenant

I Peter 4:14  If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: on their part he is evil spoken of, but on your part he is glorified.

11:26  Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt: for he had respect unto the recompense of the reward.

 

I Peter 1:9  Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.

10:36  For ye have need of patience, that, after ye have done the will of God, ye might receive the promise...  39  But we are not of them who draw back unto perdition; but of them that believe to the saving of the soul.

 

I Peter 2:2  As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby:  3  If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious.

 

6:4  For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost,  5  And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come.

 

I Peter 2:11  Dearly beloved, I beseech you as strangers and pilgrims, abstain from  fleshly lusts, which war against the soul.

11:13  These all died in faith, not having received the promises, but having  seen them afar off, and were persuaded of them, and embraced them, and  confessed that they were strangers and pilgrims on the earth.

 

I Peter 2:21  For even hereunto were ye called: because Christ also suffered for us,  leaving us an example, that ye should follow his steps:   22  Who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:   23  Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he  threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously.

12:2  Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the  joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is  set down at the right hand of the throne of God.   3  For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against  himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.

 

I Peter 3:20  Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God  waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that  is, eight souls were saved by water.

II Peter 2:5  And spared not the old world, but saved Noah the eighth person, a  preacher of righteousness, bringing in the flood upon the world of the  ungodly.

11:7  By faith Noah, being warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with  fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house; by the which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is by faith.

 

I Peter 3:21. The like figure [antitupon] whereunto even baptism doth also now save us (not the  putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

9:24  For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures [antitupon] of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us.

 

*** note *** The greek word [antitupon] only appears in these two passages.

 

 I Peter 3:18. For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit.

9:26  For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself...  28  So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.

 

I Peter 2:2  As newborn babes, desire the sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow.

5:13  For every one that useth milk is unskillful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe.

To these very definite relationships can also be added these observations as brought out by A. Welch:

            Both regard the Christian hope and salvation as objective realities, and an eventful future inheritance reserved till the second coming of Christ (I Pet. 1:3 and Heb. 6:18; I Pet. 1:5-10 and Heb. 1:14, 9:28).

            Both regard faith as steadfast trust in an unseen God which sustains His servants under temptation, and secures them final inheritance of His promises (I Pet. 1:5-9 and Heb. 11:1).

            Both regard righteousness as an upright life (I Pet. 2:24, 3:14; Heb 6:10, 10:23,24, 12:1-3,14).

            Both emphatically connect the sufferings of Christ with our future glory as two co-ordinate parts of God's scheme of redemption (I Pet. 1:11; Heb. 2:10).

            Both give the same prominence to Christ's fellowship with us inn suffering, and to the value of suffering as a necessary discipline (I Pet. 2:19-23, 4:1,13; Heb. 2:10-18, 5:7,8; 12:2-8). [9]

These similarities are very interesting.  Of the NT letters, only Hebrews and Peter talk about the "blood of sprinkling," and Christ as "Shepherd."

OBJECTIONS TO THE PETRINE AUTHORSHIP OF HEBREWS

Perhaps the strongest objection to Peter being the author of Hebrews is his presumable inability to compose such a masterpiece as Hebrews.  He was a fisherman who was not trained or schooled in the finer things of literature and prose.

On the surface this seems to be a very weighty objection.  However, textually and logically we find quite the opposite.  In Acts 4:13 we find a revealing fact about Peter (and John):

            Now when they [the religious authorities at Jerusalem] saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.

This came as a result of Peter preaching a very powerful sermon after he had healed the lame man (Acts 3:1-26) and was, along with John, taken captive by the religious authorities.  Peter's Holy Spirit inspired sermon brought 5,000 Jewish men (excluding women and children) to belief in Jesus as Messiah (Acts 4:4).  It was on the next day that the religious leaders brought Peter and John into their court and asked by what power the miracle was performed.  Once again Peter spoke with elegance and boldness:

            8  Then Peter, filled with the Holy Ghost, said unto them, Ye rulers of the people, and elders of Israel,  9  If we this day be examined of the good deed done to the impotent man, by what means he is made whole;  10  Be it known unto you all, and to all the people of Israel, that by the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, whom God raised from the dead, even by him doth this man stand here before you whole.  11  This is the stone which was set at nought of you builders, which is become the head of the corner.  12  Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.  13  Now when they saw the boldness of Peter and John, and perceived that they were unlearned and ignorant men, they marvelled; and they took knowledge of them, that they had been with Jesus.  14  And beholding the man which was healed standing with them, they could say nothing against it.

Thus Peter and John had an ability, a Holy Spirit given ability, to proclaim the message of Good News for Israel.  To be sure, they were ignorant and unlearned in the rabbinical formulas and ways, but they had been with Jesus and learned His ways.  In fact, every time we see or hear Peter in the book of Acts he is a man who has a keen insight into the Old Testament and superior speaking abilities which had been developed while he was with Jesus.  Even during his discipleship days with Jesus he was always ready to speak out for what he thought was right.  In the two letters that are ascribed to Peter we see in a compact form that he had the capability to use strong imagery and prose.

Peter was the Apostle to the Circumcision.  Jesus called him to that position of leadership which he filled.  He was called being a qualified candidate for his role.  A. Welch well summarizes this thought:

            To our mind it is plain that Peter, in the providence of God, was prepared for the work which he had to do as certainly as was the Apostle to the Gentiles.  He had a subtle race to deal with in his kinsmen, and he was chosen by our Lord for the work of propagating the gospel among them, because, by natural endowments and intellectual training, he was admirably fitted for the task. [10]

Another possible objection to Peter's authorship of Hebrews is a lack of an early church witness.  This is true. [11]   However, there are no witnesses for many of the other more commonly proposed (Luke, Silas, Barnabas, etc.) authors and this has not hindered their popular acceptance.  Indeed, apart from a few references to Paul, the early church testimony for an author is lacking.  This reminds us again that whoever wrote Hebrews was so well known by the readers that his authorship (and/or apostleship) needed no special clearance.  Thus the argument that the author must have been an accepted apostle has some strength.  Peter most certainly would fulfill this requirement.

VERSES OF CONSIDERATION

Hebrews 2:1-4

            1  Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip.  2  For if the word spoken by angels was steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward;  3  How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation; which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto us by them that heard him;  4  God also bearing witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles, and gifts of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will?

Most will agree that this passage in Hebrews almost single handedly closes the door on a Pauline authorship.  This passage runs counter to what Paul says in Galatians concerning his apostleship:

            1:11  But I certify you, brethren, that the gospel which was preached of me is not after man.  12  For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ.

            1:15  But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,  16  To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the heathen; immediately I conferred not with flesh and blood:  17  Neither went I up to Jerusalem to them which were apostles before me; but I went into Arabia, and returned again unto Damascus.  18  Then after three years I went up to Jerusalem to see Peter, and abode with him fifteen days.  19  But other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's brother.

            2:1  Then fourteen years after I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, and took Titus with me also.  2  And I went up by revelation, and communicated unto them that gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but privately to them which were of reputation, lest by any means I should run, or had run, in vain...   6  But of these who seemed to be somewhat, (whatsoever they were, it maketh no matter to me: God accepteth no man's person:) for they who seemed to be somewhat in conference added nothing to me:  7  But contrariwise, when they saw that the gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of the circumcision was unto Peter;  8  (For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, the same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles:).

I have quoted from Galatians extensively so that a comparison could be made between Hebrews 2 and Galatians 1 & 2.  In Galatians Paul says that he received his apostleship and message via direct revelation from Jesus Christ.  He also stated that he did not spend any initial time with the twelve apostles.  When he finally did gather with them they added nothing to his apostleship and message.  Clearly the author of Hebrews came to Jesus and received his apostleship and message in more of a man mediated and discipleship manner.

How are we to understand Hebrews 2 in light of the possibility that Peter wrote it?  We find an interesting possibility that is contained in John 1:35-42:

            35  Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples;  36  And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!  37. And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.  38  Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou?  39  He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.  40  One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.  41  He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.  42  And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone.

In this passage we find all the needed ingredients for Hebrews 2.  We have John the Baptist pointing out the Messiah, Jesus inviting the disciples to his house for what must have been an exposure to his messiahship (salvation), and one of the ones invited was Andrew, Peters brother.  Immediately following, Andrew leaves to find his brother Peter.  When he finds Peter he confirms ("we have found the Messiah") the message of Jesus to him.  If this infolding of these two texts are allowed then we have an indirect witness to Peter's authorship of Hebrews.

Hebrews 13:18,19,23

            18  Pray for us: for we trust we have a good conscience, in all things willing to live honestly.  19  But I beseech you the rather to do this, that I may be restored to you the sooner....  23  Know ye that our brother Timothy is set at liberty; with whom, if he come shortly, I will see you.  24  Salute all them that have the rule over you, and all the saints. They of Italy salute you.

These verses demonstrate that the author and the readers know each other.  They also have a common friend, Timothy.  The author implies that he is in prison, and hopes to be released to come and visit them "that I may be restored to you the sooner."  He also sends greetings from "they of Italy."  Are we to understand that these Italians are from Italy or in Italy?  If we allow the preposition [apo] to have its normal meaning then we would conclude that they are from [12] Italy and visiting the author while he is in prison.

CONCLUSION

That Paul did not write Hebrews is clear to most who address this study today.  The further evidence presented in this paper adds to an already strong case against his authorship.  It is inconceivable that Paul would write in Hebrews what could be considered as almost opposite ideas from his known writings.  Such a shift in theological paradigms is highly unlikely.

Did Peter write Hebrews?  I trust that the data presented here demonstrates such a possibility.  As more data is gathered [13] , Peter may stand out as the best overall candidate.  A. Welch provides us with a fitting final point:

            When we recognize Peter as the author of Hebrews, we feel at once that an inequality which has hitherto existed in our New Testament has been redressed.  The Apostle of the Circumcision seems now to have something like his due share of space assigned to him.  There may not be much in this, but one can hardly help thinking of it.  Does it not seem anomalous that we should have only two small Epistles from the pen of an apostle who occupied so important a position during our Lord's public ministry, and figured so prominently in connexion with the early organisation of the Christian Church?  We naturally expect him to have relatively something like the same prominent position in the New Testament that he occupied in the early Church. [14]

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SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, Willoughby C. & Grensted, L. W., Introduction to the Books of the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1913)

Darby, J.N., Notes on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Denver:  The Wilson Foundation, 1970)

Delitzsch, Franz, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Edinburgh:  T. & T. Clark, N.D.)

Guthrie, Donald, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1976)

Harrison, Everett F., Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1971)

Hiebert, D. Edmond, An Introduction to the Non-Pauline Epistles (Chicago: Moody Press, 1962)

McGee, J. Vernon, The Authorship of Hebrews, or Did Paul Write Hebrews? (Pasadena:  Thru the Bible Radio Network, N.D.)

Milligan, George, The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Minneapolis, The James Family Christian Publishers, 1978)

Pink, Arthur, An Exposition of Hebrews (Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, 1976)

Robinson, John A.T., Redating the New Testament (Philadelphia:  Westminster Press, 1976)

Salmon, George, A Historical Introduction to the Study of the Books of the New Testament (London:  John Murray, Albemarle Street, 1892)

Stuart, Moses, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Andover:  Flagg, Gould, and Newman, 1833)

Thomas, W.H. Griffith, Hebrews, A Devotional Commentary (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1970)

Welch, A., The Authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Edinburgh:  Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, 1898)

Wescott, Brooke Foss, The Epistle to the Hebrews (London: MacMillan and Co., Ltd., 1909)

Zahn, Theodor, Introduction to the New Testament (Minneapolis:  Klock & Klock, 1977)


Footnotes

 [1] Guthrie, Donald, New Testament Introduction (Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity Press, 1976) p.688.

[2] Ibid. p.688-690.

[3] Milligan, George, The Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Minneapolis, The James Family Christian Publishers, 1978); Zahn, Theodor, Introduction to the New Testament (Minneapolis:  Klock & Klock, 1977); and Allen, Willoughby C. & Grensted, L. W., Introduction to the Books of the New Testament (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1913)

[4] Even when Paul discusses Hebrew subjects (i.e., Rom. 2, 3, 9 - 11; Gal. 2 - 4; etc.) he does so from his distinct theological context.

[5] E. F. Scott (The Literature of the New Testament, 1932, p. 198) as quoted by Guthrie, loc. cit. p. 689.

[6] Delitzsch, Franz, Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (Edinburgh:  T. & T. Clark, N.D.) II. p. 412.

[7] Loc. cit. p. 26.

[8] See Guthire, loc. cit.; Harrison, Everett F., Introduction to the New Testament (Grand Rapids:  Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1971); Zahn, Theodor, Introduction to the New Testament (Minneapolis:  Klock & Klock, 1977); and almost any other New Testament Introduction for a summary of these various views.

[9] Welch, A., The Authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews (Edinburgh:  Oliphant Anderson & Ferrier, 1898) p. 17,18.  Emphasis his.

[10] Loc. cit. p.22.

[11] That is at least as far as my current studies have shown.  I have searched many early church fathers and they along with other commentators have not postulated Peter as the author of Hebrews.

[12] As found in similar constructs: Luke 23:51; John 1:44, 11:1; Acts 17:13; etc,.  It seems to me that those who wish to make this read like the author is in Italy do so with a view to making Paul the author.  This text, if read in its simple construct, can furnish us with some clues concerning the author and his readers.

[13] Areas such as Hellenistic overtones in Hebrews, use of the LXX in OT quotes, correlation between II Peter and Hebrews, further linguistic greek patterns, etc., need to be researched.

[14] Loc. cit. p 13.